Sign In Don't have an account? Annexed to Milan in - Annexed to Venice in Padua Republic none none Created in Partitioned into itself and Palatinate-Birkenfeld-Gelnhausen in Partitioned into itself and Palatinate-Birkenfeld-Bischweiler in Annexed to Milan in Parma Lordship none none Created in Secularised to Bavaria in Pavia Lordship none none Created in Annexed to the Republic of Pavia -- Annexed to Milan in Pavia Lordship none none Created in Annexed to Milan in Pavia Republic none none Created in Annexed to the Lordship of Pavia -- Annexed to the Lordship of Piacenza --- Annexed to the Commune of Piacenza --- Annexed to Milan in Piacenza Lordship none none Created in Annexed to Milan --- Annexed to Milan in Piedmont County none none Created in Annexed to Savoy in Piombino Lordship none none Created in Annexed to Florence in Piombino Lordship none none Created in Annexed to Spain -and France - Annexed to France in Pisa Commune none none Created in Annexed to the Republic of Pisa --and Milan - Annexed to Florence in Pisa Republic none none Created in Annexed to the Lordship of Pisa - Partitioned into itself and Pomerania-Wolgast in Partitioned into itself, Pomerania-Stolp and Pomerania-Traburg in Independent from Arles in Categories :.
Cancel Save. College of Secular Princes.This is a list of states in the Holy Roman Empire beginning with the letter P:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Wikipedia list article. This article does not cite any sources.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Categories : Lists of states in the Holy Roman Empire. Hidden categories: Articles with short description Articles containing German-language text Articles containing Latin-language text Articles lacking sources from August All articles lacking sources. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history.
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Parchim -Richenberg. Originally to lords of Montfaucon. Pfalz See: Palatinate. Pirmont See: Pyrmont.Define four functions of management
Plauen and Gera. Plauen Elder Line. Plauen Younger Line. Plesse Plessen. Plesse Elder Line. Plesse Younger Line. Whilst not part of the empire, Prussia became an de facto state of the empire and possessed extensive territories within the Empire. Pyrmont in Lower Saxony. Pyrmont Pirmont ; in Eifel.This list of states which were part of the Holy Roman Empire includes any territory ruled by an authority that had been granted imperial immediacyas well as many other feudal entities such as lordships, sous-fiefs and allodial fiefs.
The Holy Roman Empire was a complex political entity that existed in central Europe for most of the medieval and early modern periods and was generally ruled by a German-speaking Emperor. The states that composed the Empire, while enjoying a unique form of territorial authority called Landeshoheit that granted them many attributes of sovereignty, were never fully sovereign states as the term is understood today.
The lists themselves can be accessed via the alphabetical navigation box at the top of this page; each letter will lead the reader to a page where states of the Empire which began with that letter are listed. For a more complete history of the empire, see Holy Roman Empire. While any such list could never be definitive, the list attempts to be as comprehensive as possible.
List of States in the Holy Roman Empire - S
It is sorted alphabetically and split into separate articles linked in the box below. There is also a separate list of Free Imperial Citiesas well as a list of participants in the Imperial Diet as of The special status of these families manifested itself in the constitution of the Empire as it evolved in the 16th c.
To the status of territorial ruler corresponded a seat and vote in one of the colleges of the Reichstagthe Imperial Diet. In the late 16th c.The History of Europe: Every Year
After the Diet held at Augsburg inthe list of votes remained fixed, notwithstanding further territorial divisions. Furthermore, the right to vote became attached to a land, rather than to a person or family of course, land was inheritable within families. A member of the Diet with seat and vote individual or shared was called a Reichsstand, or state of the Empire. At some point Abtn2 cites various possible dates, from the turn of the 16th c.
The reason is that the Emperor, as "fons nobilitatium," had the power to create new princes, counts and barons of the Empire, a power which he began to use more frequently. The existing princes, counts and barons were obviously loathe to see the value of their title diminished.
The members of the Diet complained and, afterit became the rule that such new princes and counts would not of right have a seat at the Diet. Furthermore, in the Electoral Capitulation included strict rules on the process by which the Emperor could create new states of the Empire.
In particular, any new member had to possess an immediate territory of sufficient size, and had to be accepted by his peers princes or counts.
Only the first two groups were part of the Hochadel. Those in the third group were titular counts and princes but in no way accepted as part of the Hochadel. Thus it would seem that having seat and vote in the Reichstag would be a clear criterion for belonging to the Hochadel. But there were further complications:.
Consequently, whereas, in the 16th century, it was fairly easy to say who was in the upper nobility and who wasn't, it had become more difficult by the turn of the 19th century.
List of states in the Holy Roman Empire (C)
The three were "usually" related, in that the sovereign of a territory was a state of the Empire, and a state of the Empire usually had sovereignty over an immediate territory; but there were exceptions both ways. Various authors emphasized one or a combination of these elements.Mark43 cad
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.However, while by the 15th century the Empire was still in theory composed of three major blocks — Italy, Germany, and Burgundy — in practice, the links between these blocks had become so unsubstantial that only the Kingdom of Germany remained, nearly all the Italian territories for instance having become in effect part of a narrowly-defined Habsburg dynastic patrimony, unconnected to the Empire.
By then, it largely contained only German-speaking territories, plus the Kingdom of Bohemia. The title continued in the Carolingian family until and from toafter which it was contested by the rulers of Italy in a series of civil wars until the death of the last Italian claimant, Berengar Iin The title was revived again in when Otto I was crowned emperor, fashioning himself as the successor of Charlemagne  and beginning a continuous existence of the empire for over eight centuries.
The exact term "Holy Roman Empire" was not used until the 13th century, before which the empire was referred to variously as universum regnum "the whole kingdom", as opposed to the regional kingdomsimperium christianum "Christian empire"or Romanum imperium "Roman empire" but the Emperor's legitimacy always rested on the concept of translatio imperii[d] that he held supreme power inherited from the ancient emperors of Rome.
The empire never achieved the extent of political unification as was formed to the west in Franceevolving instead into a decentralized, limited elective monarchy composed of hundreds of sub-units : kingdomsprincipalitiesduchiescountiesprince-bishopricsFree Imperial Citiesand other domains.
Beforethe realm was merely referred to as the Roman Empire. Contradicting the traditional view concerning that designation, Hermann Weisert has argued in a study on imperial titulature that, despite the claims of many textbooks, the name "Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation" never had an official status and points out that documents were thirty times as likely to omit the national suffix as include it.
List of States in the Holy Roman Empire - P
In a famous assessment of the name, the political philosopher Voltaire remarked sardonically: "This body which was called and which still calls itself the Holy Roman Empire was in no way holy, nor Roman, nor an empire. As Roman power in Gaul declined during the 5th century, local Germanic tribes assumed control. InPepin's son Charlemagne became King of the Franks and began an extensive expansion of the realm. He eventually incorporated the territories of present-day France, Germany, northern Italy, the Low Countries and beyond, linking the Frankish kingdom with Papal lands.
Although antagonism about the expense of Byzantine domination had long persisted within Italy, a political rupture was set in motion in earnest in by the iconoclasm of Emperor Leo III the Isaurianin what Pope Gregory II saw as the latest in a series of imperial heresies.
As the Latin Church, influenced by Gothic law forbidding female leadership and property ownership, [ citation needed ] only regarded a male Roman Emperor as the head of Christendom, Pope Leo III sought a new candidate for the dignity, excluding consultation with the Patriarch of Constantinople.
Charlemagne's good service to the Church in his defense of Papal possessions against the Lombards made him the ideal candidate. Charlemagne adopted the formula Renovatio imperii Romanorum "renewal of the Roman Empire". InIrene was overthrown and exiled by Nikephoros I and henceforth there were two Roman Emperors. After Charlemagne died inthe imperial crown passed to his son, Louis the Pious. Upon Louis' death init passed to his son Lothairwho had been his co-ruler. By this point the territory of Charlemagne had been divided into several territories, and over the course of the later ninth century the title of Emperor was disputed by the Carolingian rulers of Western Francia and Eastern Franciawith first the western king Charles the Bald and then the eastern Charles the Fatwho briefly reunited the Empire, attaining the prize; however, after the death of Charles the Fat in the Carolingian Empire broke apart, and was never restored.Sign In Don't have an account?
Partitioned into intself, Gondorf and Nickenich in Partitioned into itself and Salm-Neuburg in Annexed to Lorraine in Recreated Partitioned into itself, Salm-Grumbach and Salm-Salm in Partitioned into itself and Salm-Puttlingen in Partitioned into itself and Salm-Rheingrafenstein and Grehweiler in Partitioned into itself and Salm-Kyrburg in Territories to Sinzendorf in Partitioned into itself and Salm-Neuweiler in Secularised to Baden in Saluzzo Marquisate none none Created in Annexed to Savoy -and France - Partitioned into itself and Sargans-Trochtelfingen in Partitioned into itself and Sargans-Sargans in Annexed to France in Savigliano Commune none none Created in Annexed to Piedmont - Annexed to Piedmont in Savona Commune none none Created in Annexed to Genoa in Savona Commune none none Created in Annexed to Genoa - Annexed to Genoa in Savona Margraviate none none Created in Annexed to France in Savona Republic none none Created in Annexed to France -- Annexed to France in Saxony Duchy none none Duchy created in Created in Annexed to Saxony in Sayn County none none Created in Partitioned into itself and Schaumburg-Segeberg in Held by Schaumburg-Rendsburg - Annexed to France in c.It remains one of the longest and most brutal wars in human history, with more than 8 million casualties resulting from military battles as well as from the famine and disease caused by the conflict.
The war lasted from tostarting as a battle among the Catholic and Protestant states that formed the Holy Roman Empire. In the end, the conflict changed the geopolitical face of Europe and the role of religion and nation-states in society. This effectively calmed simmering tensions between peoples of the two faiths within the Holy Roman Empire for more than 60 years, although there were flare ups, including the Cologne War and the War of the Julich Succession Still, the Holy Roman Empire may have controlled much of Europe at the time, though it was essentially a collection of semi-autonomous states or fiefdoms.
The emperor, from the House of Habsburg, had limited authority over their governance. Soon, armies for both sides were engaged in brutal warfare on multiple fronts, in present-day Austria and in the east in Transylvania, where Ottoman Empire soldiers fought alongside the Bohemians in exchange for yearly dues paid to the sultan against the Poles, who were on the side of the Habsburgs.
Even with help from soldiers from Scotland, however, the armies of Denmark-Norway fell to the forces of Ferdinand II, ceding much of northern Europe to the emperor. But inSweden, under the leadership of Gustavus Adolphus, took the side of the northern Protestants and joined the fight, with its army helping to push Catholic forces back and regain much of the lost territory lost by the Protestant Union. With the support of the Swedes, Protestant victories continued.
However, when Gustavus Adolphus was killed in the Battle of Lutzen inthe Swedes lost some of their resolve. Using military assistance of Bohemian nobleman Albrecht von Wallenstein, who provided his army of an estimated 50, soldiers to Ferdinand II in exchange for the freedom to plunder any captured territory, began to respond and, bythe Swedes were vanquished.
With religious and political tensions in the latter regions remaining high, fighting continued. The French, though Catholic, were rivals of the Habsburgs and were unhappy with the provisions of the Peace of Prague. Thus, the French entered the conflict in However, at least initially, their armies were unable to make inroads against the forces of Ferdinand II, even after he died of old age in However, the French recovered, and fighting between the French-Protestant alliance and the forces of Spain and the Holy Roman Empire were at a stalemate for the next several years.
Inthe Portuguese began to revolt against their Spanish rulers, thereby weakening their military efforts on behalf of the Holy Roman Empire.
Two years later, the Swedes re-entered the fray, further weakening Habsburg forces. The next year,was pivotal in the decades-long conflict. That year, Denmark-Norway took up arms again, this time fighting on the side of the Habsburgs and the Holy Roman Empire. Over the ensuing years, the French army had several notable victories, but also suffered significant defeats, particularly at the Battle of Herbsthausen in Also inthe Swedes attacked Vienna, but were unable to capture the city from the Holy Roman Empire.
Inthe Habsburg forces led by Octavio Piccolomini were able to repel the Swedes and the French from what is now Austria. Weakened by the fighting, for example, Spain lost its grip over Portugal and the Dutch republic. The peace accords also granted increased autonomy to the former Holy Roman Empire states in German-speaking central Europe.The Structure of the Holy Roman Empire. The Empire was made up of sub-units, either territories or people.Rubygems
They can be classified according to several related but distinct dichotomies:. External Boundaries of the Empire. The external boundaries of the Empire varied over time.
In particular, the western boundary shifted many times eastward, as French kings encroached on the Empire as they enlarged their domains. There were losses elsewhere: the Swiss cantons, practically independent of their Habsburg overlords since the Middle Ages, were formally set free at the Peace of Westphalia in The latter category included Lorraine, Burgundy, and Lombardy.
Bohemia was part of the Imperial lands because its king was an elector, but its status as a kingdom was unique within the empire.
When the elector of Brandenburg became king of Prussia, he was so only in his lands lying outside of the Empire. The exact status of Northern Italy within the Empire became rather confused over time. By the 18th century, what remained formally were a collection of imperial fiefs of various sizes: 13 in Lombardy including the duchies of Milan, Mantua, Monferrat, the principality of Mirandola, the Gonzaga territories19 in Liguria, 20 in the region of Bologna including the duchies of Modena and Ferrara10 in Tuscany the grand-duchy of Tuscany, Piombino, Soramo, Comacchio and 11 in Tirnisani.
Internal Units of the Empire. Independently of the above classification, territories can also be classified into feudal and allodial. A feudal territory was held from the Emperor as a fief, that is, by virtue of a certain type of contract. In exchange for enjoyment of the territory, the vassal owed certain duties, and was subject to certain restrictions and oversight of the Emperor.
An allodial territory was a territory for which no feudal contract existed. It was subject to the emperor as sovereign but not to the emperor as overlord. A territory was presumed to be allodial unless shown otherwise.
The term "free", also applied to certain counties, indicated that the territory was allodial. Major ecclesiastical territories were typically allodial. The role of the circles was to serve as administrative units in the enforcement of imperial law and order.
Each was headed by a prince as Kreisoberstand regional assemblies called Kreistage were held which could include territories that were not imperial states.
This list based on Arenberg shows the territories arranged by Reichskreiswith some indication of the relative size of the Kreise. Burgundischer Kreis - Burgundian Circle. Kurrheinischer Kreis - Circle of the Rhenish Electorates.
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